# Template:Math commands reference

## Unary / binary operators

Operation Command Display
Positive (plus) +1 +1
Negative (minus) -1 −1
Plus/minus +-1 
Minus/plus -+1 
Boolean 'not' neg a ¬a
Dot product a cdot b a·b
Cross product a times b a×b
Multiplication (asterisk) a * b a * b
Boolean 'and' a and b ab
Subtraction a - b a−b
Division (as a fraction) a over b 
Division (as an operator)   a div b a÷b
Division (with a slash) a / b a/b
Boolean 'or' a or b 
Concatenation a circ b 

## Relational operators

Operation Command Display
Is equal a = b a=b
Is not equal a <> b a≠b
Approximately a approx 2 a≈b
Divides a divides b 
Does not divide a ndivides b 
Less than a < 2 a<2
Greater than a > 2 a>2
Similar to or equal a simeq b 
Parallel a parallel b 
Orthogonal to a ortho b 
Less than or equal to a leslant b 
Greater than or equal to a geslant b 
Similar to a sim b 
Congruent a equiv b a≡b
Less than or equal to a <= b a≤b
Greater than or equal to a >= b a≥b
Proportional a prop b 
Toward a toward b a→b
Arrow left a dlarrow b a⇐b
Double arrow left and right   a dlrarrow b a⇔b
Arrow right a drarrow b a⇒b

## Set operations

Operation Command Display
Is in a in B a∈B
Is not in a notin B a∉B
Owns A owns b 
Empty set emptyset 
Intersection A intersection B A∩B
Union A union B A∪B
Difference A setminus B 
Quotient A slash B 
Aleph aleph
Subset A subset B A⊂B
Subset or equal to A subseteq B A⊆B
Superset A supset B A⊃B
Superset or equal to A supseteq B A⊇B
Not subset A nsubset B A / B
Not subset or equal A nsubseteq B A / B
Not superset A nsupset B A / B
Not superset or equal A nsupseteq B A / B
Set of natural numbers setN 
Set of integers setZ 
Set of rational numbers setQ 
Set of real numbers setR 
Set of complex numbers setC 

## Functions

Operation Command Display
Exponential func e^{a} ea
Natural logarithm ln(a) 
Exponential function exp(a) 
Logarithm log(a) 
Power a^{b} 
Sine sin(a) 
Cosine cos(a) 
Tangent tan(a) 
Cotangent cot(a) 
Square root sqrt{a} 
Arcsine arcsin(a) 
Arccosine arccos(a) 
Arctangent arctan(a) 
Arc cotangent arccot(a) 
nth root nroot{a}{b} 
Hyperbolic sine sinh(a) 
Hyperbolic cosine cosh(a) 
Hyperbolic tangent tanh(a) 
Hyperbolic cotangent coth(a) 
Absolute value abs{a} 
Arc hyperbolic sine arsinh(a) 
Arc hyperbolic cosine arccosh(a) 
Arc hyperbolic tangent arctanh(a) 
Arc hyperbolic cotangent arccoth(a) 
Factorial fact{a} a!

## Operators

All operators can be used with the limit functions (“from" and “to").

Operation Command Display
Limit lim{a} 
Sum sum{a} 
Product prod{a} 
Coproduct coprod{a} 
Upper and lower bounds shown with integral int from {r_0} to {r_t} a 
Integral int{a} 
Double integral iint{a} 
Triple integral iiint{a} 
Lower bound shown with summation symbol sum from{3}b 
Contour integral lint a 
Double curved integral llint a
Triple curved integral lllint a
Product with range prod from {i=1} to {n} {(i+1)} 

## Attributes

Operation Command Display
Acute accent acute a á
Grave accent grave a à
Reverse circumflex check a 
Breve breve a 
Circle circle a å
Vector arrow vec a 
Tilde tilde a ã
Circumflex hat a â
Line above bar a 
Dot dot a 
Wide vector arrow widevec abc 
Wide tilde widetilde abc
Wide circumflex widehat abc 
Double dot ddot a 
Line over overline abc 
Line under underline abc 
Line through overstrike abc abc
Triple dot dddot a
Transparent (useful to get a placeholder of a given size) phantom a
Bold font bold a 
Italic font (see Note 1) ital “a"
Resize font size 16 qv
Following item in sans serif font (see Note 2) font sans qv
Following item in serif font font serif qv
Following item in fixed font font fixed qv
Make color of following text cyan (see Note 3) color cyan qv
Make color of following text yellow color yellow qv
Make color of following text white color white qv
Make color of following text green color green qv
Make color of following text blue color blue qv
Make color of following text red color red qv
Make color green returns to default color black color green X qv
Brace items to change color of more than one item color green {X qv}

Note 1: Unquoted text that is not a command is considered to be a variable. Variables are, by default, italicized.

Note 2: There are three custom fonts: serif (with serifs), sans (sans serif, meaning without serifs), and fixed (monospaced). To change the actual fonts used for custom fonts and the fonts used for variables (unquoted text), numbers and functions, use Format > Fonts.

Note 3: For all coloring, the color will apply only to the text immediately following the command until the next space is encountered. In order to have the color apply to more characters, place the text you want in color in curly brackets.

## Miscellaneous

Operation Command Display
Infinity infinity 
Partial partial 
Nabla nabla 
There exists exists 
For all forall 
H bar hbar
Lambda bar lambdabar
Real part re 
Imaginary part im 
Weierstrass p wp
Left arrow leftarrow 
Right arrow rightarrow 
Up arrow uparrow
Down arrow downarrow
Dots at bottom dotslow
Dots at middle dotsaxis
Dots vertical dotsvert
Dots diagonal upward dotsup
Dots diagonal downward dotsdown

## Brackets

Operation Command Display
Round Brackets (a) (a)
Square Brackets [b] [b]
Double Square Brackets ldbracket c rdbracket
Single line lline a rline
Double line ldline a rdline
Braces lbrace w rbrace {w}
Braces left lbrace stack{0, n <> 0 # 1, n = 1} right none
Angle Brackets langle d rangle
Operator Brackets langle a mline b rangle
Group brackets (used for program control) {a}
Scalable round brackets (add the word "left" before a left bracket and "right" before a right bracket) left ( stack{a # b # z} right )
Square brackets scalable
(as above)
left [ stack{ x # y} right ]
Double square brackets scalable left ldbracket c right rdbracket
Line scalable left lline a right rline
Double line scalable left ldline d right rdline
Brace scalable left lbrace e right rbrace
Angle bracket scalable left langle f right rangle
Operator brackets scalable left langle g mline h right rangle
Over brace scalable {The brace is above} overbrace a
Under brace scalable {the brace is below}underbrace {f}

## Formats

Operation Command Display
Left superscript a lsup{b} 
Center superscript a csup{b} 
Right superscript a^{b} 
Left subscript a lsub{b} 
Center subscript a csub{b} 
Right subscript a_{b} 
Align character to left (text is aligned center by default) stack { Hello world # alignl (a) }
Align character to center stack{Hello world # alignc(a)}
Align character to right stack { Hello world # alignr(a)}
Vertical stack of 2 binom{a}{b} 
Vertical stack, more than 2 stack{a # b # z} 
Matrix matrix{
a # b ##
c # d
}

Equations aligned at '=' (using 'matrix') matrix{
a # "=" # alignl{b} ##
{} # "=" # alignl{c+1}
}

Equations aligned at '=' (using 'phantom') stack{
alignl{a} = b #
alignl{phantom{a} = c+1}
}

Small gap (grave) stuff `stuff
Large gap (tilde) stuff~stuff

## Characters – Greek

Code Display Code Display Code Display Code Display Code Display
%ALPHA Α %BETA Β %CHI Χ %DELTA Δ %EPSILON Ε
%ETA Η %GAMMA Γ %IOTA Ι %KAPPA Κ %LAMBDA Λ
%MU Μ %NU Ν %OMEGA Ω %OMICRON Ο %PHI Φ
%PI Π %PSI Ψ %RHO Ρ %SIGMA Σ %THETA Θ
%UPSILON Υ %XI Ξ %ZETA Ζ
%alpha α %beta β %chi χ %delta δ %epsilon ε
%eta η %gamma γ %iota ι %kappa κ %lambda λ
%mu μ %nu ν %omega ω %omicron ο %phi φ
%pi π %rho ρ %sigma σ %tau τ %theta θ
%upsilon υ %varepsilon  %varphi  %varpi  %varrho 
%varsigma  %vartheta  %xi ξ %zeta ζ

## Characters – Special

 %and  %angle  %element  %identical  %infinite  %noelement  %notequal  %or  %perthousand ‰ %strictlygreaterthan  %strictlylessthan  %tendto